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BASICS IN AGRICULTURE – III

18

-RK Dawla
Ramlaitui
Mb 9366095658

Khawvêl thiamna sáng zêlin min hrût ve zêl a. 4G internet-ah kan chen mêk lai hian, showroom-ah kan pawn lam incheina tur kan thulkhung laiin kan taksa chhunga lût tur kan eiturte pawn lêrah kan pho/zuar  lawi a. Hei hian kan Agriculture standard hniamzia a tilang chiang viau àwm e. Heti kan nih avâng hian (kan dehchhuah sa kan sawngbawl dan a chutih lua loh avângin) kan thar chhuah dan system pawh ennawn leh zirchian a ngai takmeuh a. ‘Kan thar hlâwk em’ tih chauh ni lovin, ‘A him em, a tlo/daih rei ang em’ tih lam kan thlir tel a ngai e. Kan thupui-ah lût ila…

CARBON/NITROGEN RATIO (C/N RATIO)

Ṭhal-ah thlai bula hnim kan sàmna ruang kan chhehin thlai an chawrno hluam hluam a, Fura kan chheh erawh chuan a lâwng lawi si. Pangpar pot-ah kan maian bai or anṭam chhum ei bâng kan chhung a, an duah ṭha viau a; ruahtui tlâk laia kan chhun erawh chuan a hnah a engin a ṭhan a tãwp daih  thung, eng vàng nge?

Kan hriat ṭheuh angin ram lum (Tropical region)-ah kan awm a. Hei vàng hian nipuiah thlai eichhetu rannung a puang nasa-in, hmuar lam (fungi) vànga natna insiam – thlai vuai ringawt, a kung ṭawih, rawng  enga thlai hnah spot, etc  a tam thei êm êm. Carbon leh Nitrogen intamhleih dan sawina hi Carbon/Nitrogen ratio (C/N Ratio) chu a ni. Thlai/hnim hnah leh rah, hruihram (Cellulose) tamna – changel kung leh hnah, kuhva kâwr, buhpawl etc hovah hian carbon a tam avângin C/N ratio a sáng a. Hnim, thlai hnah leh zikno-ah hian Carbon a tlêm a, Nitrogen a tam deuh tãk avângin C/N ratio a hniam thung. C/N Ratio hniam apiang a ṭawih chak a, a sáng apiang a ṭawih muang thung. C/N ratio a sàn hian Fungi lam chi-ho hi an nghal thei lova. Fur-ah thlai bulah hnim kan chheh chuan, hnim ro leh hruihram tam, ṭawih har, C/N Ratio sang hman a pawimawh a nih chu. Leiṭha (compost) kan siam dawn pawhin Fur-ah chuan kan thil lakkhawmah C/N ratio sang-ho kan hman tel a ṭul ṭhin.

Entirnân : Kuhva khehna kâwr kan khawnkhawm a, Ser nursery bed-ah uluk takin kan chapparh a. Fungi natna tam tak lakah ser a vêngin, hnim ṭo tur a dang (block) a, ṭhâl-ah hnâwng a chelhding a, fur-ah lei kalral tur a vêng bawk a, kum hnih chhung a daih thei nia! Pangpar pot/greenhouse ilovah pawh ngaihngam takin a dah tlâk e.

BACTERIA/FUNGI RATIO (B/F RATIO) VE THUNG

Thlai engpawh kan chin dawn reng rengin, leiṭha pêk bâkah, kan chinna leilunga leiṭha awmsa humhalh a pawimawh tih kan sawi tawh a. Hemi ruala hmaih thiang miah lo chu Bacteria leh Fungi intamhleih dan (B/F Ratio) hi a ni. Leilungah hian microbes tam tak an awm a. A ṭhenin thlai an vêngin leiṭha siam turin thil an eiṭawih  a, a ṭhenin thlai an tichhia a. Lei balance ṭha pangngaiah chuan a ṭangkaiho hi an tam zâwk lâwt lak thin. Entirnân – Nematodes (thlai rulhût) ringawt pawh hi chi hrang hrang 20,000 zet an awm a. Heng zinga 2% chauh hi thlai tâna hlauhawm an ni a, 98% zet hi chu thlai tâna ṭha an ni. Tichuan, lei a lo balance chuan, 98% zet-te hian a hlauhawmho an tamhneh (suppressed) a, algae (pât-êk) ṭhenkhatten nematodes hlauhawmte hi an ei bawk.

Bacteria leh fungi-te hi leilunga thilṭo leh nungcha ruang eiṭawihtu ber an ni a. Nematodes ang bawkin bacteria ṭangkaite hi a hlauhawm chite ai chuan an tam zâwk thin, mihringte tichhiat loh lei balance-ah chuan. Kan ram ang ram lumah chuan Bacteria hlauhawm ai chuan fungi hlauhawm chiho vànga thlai natna hi a tam zâwk ngial a. Heti anih avâng hian kan thlai chinna leilungah Fungi aia Bacteria an tam zâwk hi a ṭul a ni. Chuti a nih loh chuan, fungi vànga harsatna hi a thleng âwl lo mai ṭhin a ni. A tlangpuiin, thil hring ṭawihah hian fungi a hluar duh a; thil ro ṭawihah erawh bacteria a tam tlangpui thung. Tui tling rengah emaw, hlo hring ṭawihah hian Fungi a puang hma êm êm.

HOMEMADE LACTIC ACID BACTERIA :

Lactic acid Bacteria (LAB) kan tihte hi Bacteria ṭangkai tak niin Pangpar leh thlai enkawl nân an ṭangkai hle a. Bacteria ṭhalo leh fungi hlauhawm an that a, leilungah B/F ratio an tisáng ṭhin a. Nematodes hlauhawm an bei a, a hlauhawm lo an thawhpui lawi a. Tomato ching ṭhinte tân phei chuan, phunna tur leilung sawngbawl nân duhthusàm an ni. Tomato ral chimawm Ralstonia Solanacearum bacteria control theitu an ni.

A SIAM DAN : LAB-te hi chi hrang hrang an awm ve a. Zo buhfaia awmho hi an chhel deuh a, an tlêm thung. Chu chu Bawnghnute hmangin an tipung thin. Zo buhfai 1kg hi tui litre 3-in zankhat plastic burah kan chiah a. A chhin atân Vai puannemin kan khuangtuam a. A tukah bur chhunga buhfai chu kan chawk nawk nawk a, buhfai chu la chhuakin favai pava 2 telh lehin ni 3 kan up leh a. A chhinah puan bawk chu hmang lehin ni thumnaah chuan, thingpuife dannain favai kan paih leh a. Bawnghnute (duhthusàm chuan a hring ngei, a awm loh chuan Amul gold etc) 2 litre pawlh lehin ni 3 vêl kan chiah leh a. Ni thum hnu vêl, chunglamah Bawnghnute khãr a rawn lâng ta tih-ah chuan, a khãr chu ran chaw-ah kan paih a. A tui la awm zawng chu LAB concentrate (Lactic acid bacteria tak ngel ngawl) a lo ni ta thin. Hetianga kan LAB siam 20ml hi tui 1 litre nên pawlhin thlai bula leih, thlai kah nân a hman theih ta thin. Dah ṭhat dawn chuan kurtai chawhtui kan leihlut a, phui lutuka chhin lovin hmun daihlimah kan dah ṭha thin.

SOIL DRENCHING

Tun laiin thlasik thlai (tomato, zikhlum, brocoli etc) chin a hun chhova. Leilung lo buatsaih lâwk dan tlêm tarlang ila : Chinai thi thirfiante khat emaw chinai pangngai kuhva pakhat eina tura telh tâwk tuia chawhral hmangin kan tomato (or thildang) phunna tur kha sawisa hmasa ang a. Hei hian lei thûr a tireh ang. Trichoderma viride (thlai chi zuar dawr pangngai chuan an kawl tel fur ang) hi fungi ṭangkai chi khat niin thlai eichhetu fungi hlauhawm – Pythium, fusarium, alternaria etc thattu an ni a. Trichoderma leh LAB hmang hian kan thlai phunna tur leilung kha zan khat lo up lawk ila. Tichuan, chemical hlauhawm tel miah lovin thlai chinna tur leilung kha ṭha takin kan buatsaih thei dawn a ni.

(THE AIZAWL POST – Article)

The Aizawk Post

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