Daily Newspaper

BASICS IN AGRICULTURE – VI

71

Vawikhat atân chauh kan lo piang a, vawikhat chauh kan thi dawn. Mi rilru pangngai, fuke kim kan nih chhung chuan danglamna thlen turin theihna kan nei a. Chu chu haider lova, kan theihna hrechianga, ṭangkai thei ang bera kan hman chuan Zoram khawvêl hi kan tidanglam ngei ang. Kuthnathawktute hian rilru huaisen kan put fo a ṭul e. Heti taka ei leh bàra kan ram intodelh loh chhan hi KEIMAHNI mawh a ni a, chu mawhphurhna chingfel tura tihtakzeta beih chu kan hna a ni. Chuti ni lova, a rem rem kan thawh a, mi tih ang ringawt thlai kan chin hian kan ropui lovang tih a hlauhawm e. Line danga mite ang bawkin, kuthnathawktu i nih chuan GOAL i nei tur a ni. Eng hunah nge chu goal chu i thlen – kum 2, kum 5 kum 10… a pawimawh lo. Vawi engzatnge i hlawhchham tih pawh a pawimawh lo. I goal i thlen leh thlen loh chiah kha a pawimawh. A nihna takah chuan tu tân mah hringnun hi a awlsam ngai rêng rêng lo! Chuvàngin, kuthnathawh hlawhtlinna kawng pawh hi a màm bik beisei lo ila. Harsa tak leh thlantui tam tak nêna sualchhuah ngai a ni zâwk ngei ang. Kan thlaite min enkawlpui tura Pathianin leilunga a dah hrik ṭangkai chi hnih kan bel chiang leh dawn a ni.

ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

Fungi tam berte hi thlai hmelma ni mah se, a then erawh ṭangkai tak tak an awm a. Thlai tâna ṭangkai, thlai nêna inchhawrtawn (symbiotic fungi)-te zinga pakhat  Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF emaw VAM tiin an sawi bawk) chanchin hi ngaihven tham zet mai a ni a. VAM tih hming hian market-ah lei tur a awm nghe nghe ang. Hengho hian thlai chaw siam chuangbâng an ei a, thlai tan natna vènsak, chaw ei tur lak luhsak, environment ṭhalo laka vènhim hna an thawk thung. Vascular plants (thlai kung chang) kan tihho zinga 80% zet leh agri thlai zinga 90% zet chuan, AMF hi an chhawr ṭangkai a. Leilunga microbes awm zawng zawng zinga 9 – 55% hi  AMF an lo ni  daih. Mihringte chawhbuai loh ramhnuai ngaw-ah kan hriatpui hauh lovin an lo kuh ṭul a.  An tam leh tlèmin thilṭo (thlai)-te hriselna leh thar hlâwkna chungchângah kawngro a su hle bawk. Hei vàng hian a ni ang e, tuma enkawl loh ramhnuai Vawmva, Bil thei a rah kùr ngiai nguai ṭhin ni! AMF hi hmun hnihah an khawsa ṭhin – thilṭo zungah leh an chaw (carbohydrates & lipids) awmna leilungah. Thilṭo zungah pawh duh bik deuh an nei a, chutiangah chuan, an population a tam bik ṭhin. Entirnan – Bahiagrass, buhtun, Faisa etc zungah. Heng thlaite hi AMF lo khawi pun lailâwk nân an hmang ṭhin a. Tichuan khawi pun sa chu thlai chinna tur leilungah an chhuah leh ta ṭhin. Thlai zungah an khawsak chiah hian, thlai chaw siamsa aṭangin 10-20% vel an lo eisak ve a. A lêtah hêng hi an thawhsak :

  1. Tui leh nutrient (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Calcium, Zinc, Sulphur) ei tur a supply. AMF thawhpuitu thlai chuan, an zungsam bâkah AMF an nei tel bik a nih chu – chaw (minerals) petu tur.
  2. Leilunga hmuar hrik hlauhawmin thlai zung an eichhe tur an vêng. Thlai chinna tur leilungah AMF lo chhuah-lâwkin, thlai zung insiam ṭantir an bel chat a, hmuar (fungi) ral vènpui turin an lo ding tlat ṭhin.
  3. Thlai chaw zinga metal rit deuh – Copper, Zinc ilo an lakluhpui. Heng thlaite hi thlai zung pangngaiin khamkhawp a lalût theilo fo.
  4. Tui tlêmna hmun leh khawvawt vànga thlai harsatna sutkian kawngah an thawh hlâwk hle. Thlaiin lei al (Saline soil), ṭhal khawro leh thlasik khawvawt an tawrh theih phah.
  5. Leia salt tam lutuk (lei al) vànga thlai sî-khaw tur an chhanhim. pH neutral thuak chung pawhin lei a al hle thei.
  6. AMF hian thlai zung a su tlang mai ni lovin, thlai zung chhunga cell (cortical cells) kha a zu verh tlang kher a. Hei vàng hian thlai chaw lâkkhawmpui turin AMF aia ṭha an vàng khawp ang le!

Hetiang taka ṭangkai a nih avâng hian, thlai tharchhuah kawngah pawh a tihlâwk hle. Strawberry, tomato ilovah phei chuan 17% thlengin a thar a tihlâwk thei. Leilet buh enkawltute tân chanchin ṭha a hnutchhiah a. Tin, thlai azirin leiṭha pêk ṭhinte 50% thlengin a ti-hniam thei niin research paper ṭhenkhatah chuan an ziak bawk.

 LIQUID  CONSORTIA

Thlai chaw mamawh bulpui pathum – Nitrogen, Phosphorus leh Potassium kan hre tawh a. Hengte hi tam thama an mamawh (macronutrient) niin ran zun-êk ang zawng te, saruh nawi, ningnawi leh chemical ang zawng thlengin thlai kan pe thin a. Nimahsela, hei hi kan hriat a ngai e : Kan leitha pêka Nitrogen awmte hi kan pêk ang ang kha thlaiin an ei sêng mai lova, tam tak bacteria ṭhenkhat (Denitrifying bacteria)-ten eiralin boruakah an paihchhuak leh thin. Phosphorus awmna leiṭhate hi thlaiin chuti sam maiin an ei thei lova, microbes (bacteria)-ten an eiṭawih hmasak phawt a ngai thin. Tin, Phosphorus leh Potassium hi lei mur nên inbelhbawm tlat (immobilize)-in thlaiin chu chu la hrangin an ei theilo ṭhin bawk. Kan hmunhma-ah lei chunglâng a kalral nasat vàng leh bacteria ṭangkaite chaw tur a tam ṭhin loh vàngin khing thlai chaw chithum buaipuitu microbes ṭangkaite khi hnathawk tham an awm lo fo ṭhin.

He harsatna thuah thum hi a ruala chingfel dan kawng khat thlirho ila. Liquid consortia emaw Liquid NPK biofertilizers tiin market-ah lei tur a awm ṭhin. Hetah hian thlai chaw mamawh bulpui buaipuitu – Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Acetobacter, Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria leh Potassium Mobilizing Bacteria dahkhawm a ni a. Consortia 5ml leh tui 1 Litre hisápa pawlh dal khan thlai bulah emaw thlai chinna tur leiah leih mai tur a ni. Heng bacteria-te hian kan leiṭha pêk ang ang kha thlai ei nghal theih turin an lo siamrem char char mai dawn a ni. Liquid manure/Zopa-chawhchawrawi kan siamah khan a pawlh nghal mai theih bawk.

Thlai engpawh leiah kan chin hian, a leilung kha a pawimawh ber a. Chu kan thlai chinna leilung hmantlâka siamtute chu microbes kan tihte hi an ni tih kan hriatreng a pawimawh khawp mai. A tãwp berah chuan LAB te, Trichoderma te, Consortia leh AMF-te hi kan leilunga awmsa, Indigenous Micro-organism (IMO) an ni a. Kan siamchhuak lova, kan khawipung chauh mai an ni e. Kan environment kan tichereu nasa a, chuvànga khawipung a, kan hmunhmaa dahlût leh mai tur chauh kan ni zâwk.

(THE AIZAWL POST – Article)

The Aizawk Post

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